Darmstadt Knowledge Processing Repository

At the UKP Lab, we put a strong focus on developing the software that is the basis for our experiments in a re-usable manner. We call that body of software that we produce the Darmstadt Knowledge Processing Software Repository (DKPro). 


Several products have grown from our DKPro philosophy and have been released under an open source license to the public:

  • CSniper is a search-based annotation tool to help distributed annotation teams finding infrequent linguistic phenomena in large corpora.
  • DKPro Core provides a set of ready to use software components for natural language processing, based on the Apache UIMA framework.
  • DKPro Lab is a lightweight framework for parameter sweeping experiments. It allows you to set up experiments consisting of multiple interdependent tasks in a declarative manner with minimal overhead.
  • DKPro LSR (Lexical Semantic Resources) is a unified API for several lexical-semantic resources.
  • DKPro Similarity is an open source software package for developing text similarity algorithms.
  • DKPro Spelling includes components for real-word spelling error correction and experimental frameworks for mining such errors from the Wikipedia revision history as well as for the "Helping Our Own" shared tasks 2011 and 2012.
  • DKPro Statistics is a collection of open-licensed statistical tools, currently including correlation and inter-rater agreement methods.
  • DKPro TC (Text Classification) is a UIMA-based text classification framework built on top of DKPro Core, DKPro Lab and the Weka Machine Learning Toolkit. It is intended to alleviate supervised machine learning experiments with any kind of textual data.
  • DKPro Uby is a Java framework for creating and accessing sense-linked lexical resources in accordance with the UBY-LMF lexicon model, an instantiation of the ISO standard Lexicon Markup Framework (LMF).
  • DKPro WSD is a modular, extensible Java framework for word sense disambiguation.
  • JOWKL (Java OmegaWiki Library) is an open-source, Java-based application programming interface that allows to access all information contained in OmegaWiki, such as glosses, usage examples, translations and much more.
  • JWKTL (Java Wiktionary Library) is a free, Java-based application programming interface that allows to access the information contained in Wiktionary.
  • JWPL (Java Wikipedia Library) is a free, Java-based application programming interface that allows to access all information contained in Wikipedia.
  • WebAnno is a general purpose web-based annotation tool for a wide range of linguistic annotations.


The principal investigator is Prof. Dr. Iryna Gurevych.

Richard Eckart de Castilho is currently the technical lead.

DKPro is a shared project of all UKP to which all group members contribute.


We use DKPro products in our courses:


The UKP group received two IBM's 2008 Unstructured Information Analytics (UIA) Awards for their DKPro proposals! The award was covered in the 30 June 2008 issue of the Darmstädter Echo.


Representation and Interchange of Linguistic Annotation. An In-Depth, Side-by-Side Comparison of Three Designs

Author Richard Eckart de Castilho, Nancy Ide, Emanuele Lapponi, Stephan Oepen, Keith Suderman, Erik Velldal, Marc Verhagen
Date April 2017
Kind Inproceedings
PublisherAssociation for Computational Linguistics
AddressValencia, Spain
Book titleProceedings of the 11th Linguistics Annotation Workshop (LAW XI) at EACL 2017
Research Areas Ubiquitous Knowledge Processing, reviewed, UKP_p_DKPro, UKP_reviewed, UKP_s_DKPro_Core, CEDIFOR, UKP_p_OpenMinTeD
Abstract For decades, most self-respecting linguistic engineering initiatives have designed and implemented custom representations for various layers of, for example, morphological, syntactic, and semantic analysis. Despite occasional efforts at harmonization or even standardization, our field today is blessed with a multitude of ways of encoding and exchanging linguistic annotations of these types, both at the levels of ‘abstract syntax’, naming choices, and of course file formats. To a large degree, it is possible to work within and across design plurality by conversion, and often there may be good reasons for divergent design reflecting differences in use. However, it is likely that some abstract commonalities across choices of representation are obscured by more superficial differences, and conversely there is no obvious procedure to tease apart what actually constitute contentful vs. mere technical divergences. In this study, we seek to conceptually align three representations for common types of morpho-syntactic analysis, pinpoint what in our view constitute contentful differences, and reflect on the underlying principles and specific requirements that led to individual choices. We expect that a more in-depth understanding of these choices across designs may led to increased harmonization, or at least to more informed design of future representations.
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